Mitochondrial Disorders Overview

RSGC

Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathies, Mitochondrial Myopathies, Oxidative Phosphorylation Disorders, Respiratory Chain Disorders
 
Patrick F Chinnery, PhD, FRCPath, FRCP, FMedSci
Institute of Human Genetics
Newcastle University
Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Initial Posting: June 8, 2000; Last Update: September 16, 2010.

Summary

Disease characteristics. Mitochondrial diseases are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders that arise as a result of dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. They can be caused by mutations of nuclear or mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Some mitochondrial disorders only affect a single organ (e.g., the eye in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy [LHON]), but many involve multiple organ systems and often present with prominent neurologic and myopathic features. Mitochondrial disorders may present at any age. Many affected individuals display a cluster of clinical features that fall into a discrete clinical syndrome, such as the Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS), chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and…

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