Gender and Genetics

Genetic Components of Sex and Gender Humans are born with 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs. The X and Y chromosomes determine a person’s sex. Most women are 46XX and most men are 46XY. Research suggests, however, that in a few births per thousand some individuals will be born with a single sex chromosome (45X or…

NOMENCLATURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF DSD (Disorders of Sex Development)

1. Dilemma of the preexisting nomenclature Advances in understanding the molecular genetic causes of abnormal sexual development and heightened awareness of the ethical and patient-advocacy issues mandated a reexamination of preexisting nomenclature [11]. Terminologies such as intersex, hermaphroditism, and pseudohermaphroditism are controversial; potentially pejorative to patients; and confusing even to urologists [1]. Therefore, the term…

Disorders of Sex Development (DSD)

Kun Suk Kim and  Jongwon Kim Department of Urology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. Corresponding author. Corresponding Author: Kun Suk Kim. Department of Urology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88, Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736, Korea. TEL: +82-2-3010-3736, FAX: +82-2-477-8928, Email: kskim2@amc.seoul.kr Author information ► Article notes ►…

Klinefelter Syndrome

  DANIEL J. WATTENDORF, MAJ, MC, USAF, and MAXIMILIAN MUENKE, M.D., National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland Am Fam Physician. 2005 Dec 1;72(11):2259-2262.                              This article exemplifies the AAFP 2005 Annual Clinical Focus on the legal, social, clinical, and ethical issues of medical genomics. To complement the 2005 Annual Clinical Focus on medical…